|Introduction, initial considerations||Examples by type of documents||Citing references in text||How to order references in the reference list|
APA Style is recommended by Blanquerna Faculty of Psychology, Education and Sports Sciences.
This document was developed based on the sixth edition of:
American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
For specific cases, please consult the APA Style website at:
American Psychological Association. (2013). APA Style, at http://www.apastyle.org
In the section of examples by types of document, you can find the page of the manual in brackets where you can consult further information.
The reference list at the end of a journal article provides the information necessary to identify and retrieve each source. All citations have to be in the reference list and all the references have to be cited in the text. References appear in a list at the end of the text in alphabetical order, regardless of supports (to know how to order them, please see the document: how to order references).
Although graphically the correct way of reproducing the title is by using italics, it is also acceptable to do it by using underlining (as a usual typographic layout).
The reference list has to be double-spaced and entries must have a hanging indent.
Edition should be mentioned from the 2nd edition.
If no date is available for an item, we have to write (n.d.).
Every entry includes all the information needed for identification and library search. The reference elements are: author, editor, publication date, title, publication information, electronic sources and locator information, pages, and DOI (for further information about DOI, please click here).
Rev. ed. Revised edition
2nd ed. second edition
Ed. (Eds.) Editor (Editors)
n.d. no date
p. (pp.) page (pages)
Location of publishers:
When works are published in Spain, we write the city and province of the publishing house. When it is a foreign work, we write the city and country. If the publisher is a university whose name includes the name of the province, then we will not repeat it.
The following locations can be listed without abbreviation for country, as they are well-known, although it is recommended to write it down:
Baltimore, New York, Amsterdam, Paris, Boston, Philadelphia, Jerusalem, Rome, Chicago, San Francisco, London, Stockholm, Milan, Tokyo, Moscow, Vienna, Los Angeles.
The location has to be written in the same language as our article.
Although some volume numbers of books and journals are given in Roman numerals, we have to use Arabic numerals, because they use less space and are easier to comprehend. A Roman numeral that is part of a title should remain Roman.